RIVERS AND LAKES, MINERAL WEALTH, SOILS

RIVERS AND LAKES
Himachal Pradesh has the privilege of snowfed perennial rivers and rivulets
flowing in almost all parts of the Pradesh. Yamuna, with its important tributaries of
Tons, Pabbar and Giri in the east and Satluj, Beas, Ravi and Chenab in the west
flow through various parts of the Pradesh. Some of the important natural lakes
worth mentioning are Khajjiar, Ghadasasu Lamba Dal, Manimahesh, Mahakali in
Chamba Distt.; Dal, Kareri in Kangra Distt.; Rewalsar, Kumarwah, Prashar in
Mandi district; Bhrigu and Dashahr in Kullu Distt.; Chandratal and Surajtal in
Lahaul & Spiti Distt.; Chandra Naun in Shimla district; and Renuka in Sirmaur
Distt. The man made lakes include Gobind Sagar in Bilaspur district; Pong lake in
Kangra district; Pandoh lake in Mandi district; and Chamera lake in Chamba district.

MINERAL WEALTH
Himachal Pradesh is blessed with mineral wealth. As per investigation of
Geological Survey of India, the minerals available in Himachal Pradesh include
limestone, byrytes, clays, mica, iron pyrites, salt, gypsum, slate, antimony and lead.
The distribution of these minerals is scattered all over the State and includes lime
stone in Bilaspur, Sirmaur and Kangra districts; salt and slates in Mandi District;
gypsum in Rajban, Bharli Sirmour distt.; Lahaul & Spiti and Sapatu in Solan distt.;
byryte in Sirmour, iron ore in Mandi and Kangra; and uranium in Kullu and
Hamirpur districts.

SOILS
The soils of the State can broadly be divided into nine groups on the basis of
their development and physico-chemical properties. These are: (i) alluvial soils, (ii)
brown hill soil, (iii) brown earth, (iv) brown forests soils, (v) grey wooded or
podzolic soils, (vi) grey brown podzolic soils, (vii) planosolic soils, (viii) humus
and iron podzols (ix) alpine humus mountain speletal soils. The soil found in the
districts of Mandi, Kangra, Bilaspur, Una, Solan, Hamirpur and Sirmaur is
generally brown, alluvial and grey brown podzolic, Kullu and Shimla have greywooded
podzolic soils,while Kinnaur, Lahaul and Spiti and some parts of Chamba
district have humus mountain speletal soils

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