1.1. Himachal Pradesh is situated between 30o 22' 40” to 33 o 12’ 20” north
latitudes and 75 o 45' 55" to 79 o 04’ 20” east longitudes. The altitude in the
Pradesh, a wholly mountainous region in the lap of Himalayas, ranges from 350
metres to 6975 metres above mean sea level. It is surrounded by Jammu and Kashmir
in the north, Tibet on north east, Uttaranchal in the east/south east; Haryana in south
and Punjab in south west/west.
2.1 Himachal Pradesh can be divided into three regions: - (i) The Shivalik ranges
(the height from plain upto 915 metres); (ii) Colder Zone (the height is about 4500
metres); and (iii) the Axis and Crystalline core of the whole system (the height above
4500 metres but below 5500 metres).
2.2 The climatic conditions, therefore, vary from the semi- tropical to semi-artic.
Physiographically, the state can be divided into five zones based on altitudes and
moisture regime conditions. These vary from wet humid sub-temperate situation to
dry temperate alpine high lands.
2.3 Besides the seasonal variations, the climate of Himachal Pradesh varies at
different altitudes. The average rainfall is 152 cms. (60 inches). The highest rainfall
occurs in Kangra district followed by Shimla district.


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